Category Archives: HIV and STI Prevention

HIV Impact Assessment Shows Significant Progress in Malawi

Tiwonge Chimpandule, I-TECH Malawi’s Strategic Information Officer, presents the results of the 2020/21 Malawi Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (MPHIA) to guest of honor Chrissy Kalamula Kantaso, Deputy Minister of Health (right). Looking on are Jeremy Neitzke, Deputy Chief of Mission, U.S. Embassy (center) and Dr. Rose Nyirenda, Director, HIV and AIDS Department in the Ministry of Health (left). Photo credit: I-TECH Malawi

On World AIDS Day, December 1, staff from the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) convened with the Ministry of Health (MOH), Columbia University’s ICAP, and other national stakeholders in Malawi to present the results of the 2020-21 Malawi Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (MPHIA). The commemoration, with the theme of “End Inequalities, End AIDS, End Pandemics,” was held at Bumba Primary School grounds in Rumphi District.

The assessment, led by the MOH and ICAP, shows that the national HIV testing program, supported by I-TECH, has achieved a significant increase in the awareness of status among HIV-positive adults—from 77% in 2016 to 88% in 2020-21.

Malawi has also made great strides toward reaching the UNAIDS 95-95-95 Fast Track targets, surpassing both the second 95 (results indicate that 98% of those who know their status are initiated on treatment) and third 95 (results indicate 97% of those on treatment are virally suppressed).

The assessment will be critical to informing future programming, says Dr. Rose Nyirenda, Director of the Ministry of Health’s HIV and AIDS Department. “The 2020-21 MPHIA has produced a wealth of information that will be critical for tailoring our services and to refine strategies for closing the remaining gaps,” says Dr. Nyirenda.

The HIV and AIDS Department also exhibited commodities (antiretroviral medications, testing kits, opportunistic infection (OI) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) medicines, condoms, voluntary medical male circumcision kits) that are procured and managed through the Supply Chain and Logistics Unit.

Correction: A previous version of this article misstated the organization that conducted the 2020-21 Malawi Population-based HIV Impact Assessment. This assessment was led by the Malawi Ministry of Health and Columbia University’s ICAP.

HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Ukraine

The Government of Ukraine prioritized pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as part of combination prevention for HIV in 2019.1 Since 2020, I-TECH has focused its programmatic efforts in Ukraine on improving PrEP services uptake and strengthening PrEP delivery at selected stat healthcare facilities.

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I-TECH Presents Posters at IAS 2021 Conference on HIV Science

The International AIDS Society (IAS) virtually hosted the 11th Conference on HIV Science on 18-21 July 2021. The conference also included a “local partner hub” in Berlin, the original host city, for local experts to gather in person. This biennial conference brings together top HIV researchers, experts, and scientists for presentations and discussions on the latest advances in HIV research and practice.

Representatives from the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) virtually presented the following posters:

Representatives from I-TECH’s partner network organizations and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also presented data from I-TECH-supported programs in Malawi, India, and Zimbabwe.

Reducing HIV through Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Zimbabwe

Since 2013, the ZAZIC Consortium has been implementing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) as part of a combination HIV prevention package approved by the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) in Zimbabwe. Unlike other VMMC programs in the region, the ZAZIC model uses an integrated approach, blending local clinic staff supported by MOHCC with partner staff. The ZAZIC consortium supports:

  • Training using MoHCC approved curricula, health workers in the supported districts are trained on the surgical technique as well as on demand creation
  • Development and implementation of age appropriate demand creation strategies
  • Support service delivery in 13 districts from consent procedures to post-surgical care and linkage to other services
  • Comprehensive monitoring and evaluation including continuous quality improvement and operations research

From 2013-2018, ZAZIC performed over 300,000 VMMCs with a reported moderate and severe adverse event rate of 0.3%. The safety, flexibility, and pace of scale-up associated with the integrated VMMC model appears similar to vertical delivery with potential benefits of capacity building, sustainability and health system strengthening. Although more complicated than traditional approaches to program implementation, attention should be given to this country-led approach for its potential to spur positive health system changes, including building local ownership, capacity, and infrastructure for future public health programming. Over 80% of the circumcisions occur in outreach settings, an approach that ensures wide coverage and expanded services in hard-to-reach locations.

Two-Way Texting Study Offers Innovative Model to Reduce Provider Workload while Preserving Patient Safety

The two-way texting research team.

This piece was first posted on the University of Washington Department of Global Health’s website.

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) safely reduces the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission by up to 60%. Few men have any post-operative VMMC complication. However, current practice in Zimbabwe and throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa requires VMMC patients to return for multiple, in-person post-operative visits. With low complication rates, and severe healthcare worker shortages, these required visits are a burden for providers and patients — threatening achievement of critical HIV prevention targets. A two-way texting model studied by University of Washington researchers in Zimbabwe offers a new way to address this barrier by reducing provider workload while also safeguarding patient safety.

“These visits can be a barrier to male circumcision uptake and expansion in countries with severe health care worker shortages, as well as negatively impacting patients who needlessly pay for transport, miss work, and wait for unnecessary reviews,” said Principal Investigator Caryl Feldacker, PhD, MPH, at the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) in the University of Washington Department of Global Health.

The study included 721 VMMC patients in two locations in urban Zimbabwe. In the study, patients communicated directly with a health care worker through interactive text messaging for the critical 13 days post-VMMC, rather than returning for required in-person visits. By giving men the option to heal safely at home, or return to care when desired or if complications arose, the method dramatically reduced in-person visits by 85%. Texting also reduced follow-up costs by about one-third while improving the quality of care.

As compared to routine in-person care, the study yielded twice the number of reported complications. “This increased identification and reporting is a positive result that is likely attributable to improved counseling and men’s engagement in care. Through texting, men were empowered to observe their healing and report potential issues promptly, before they worsened,” said Feldacker.

Currently, most text-based health care efforts blast pre-defined messages to many people simultaneously, removing patients’ ability to communicate back with health care workers. In contrast, two-way texting between providers and patients provides interactive care, and the short time frame heightened participation: in the study, 93% of men responded to texts. Both providers and clients reported confidence in the texting option, feeling safe and highly recommending it for scale.

“With the current system, Zimbabwe could perform millions of unnecessary follow-up visits over the coming five years. The workload burden for health care workers and time lost for patients who are healing without complication is a significant burden for health care workers and clients alike,” said Feldacker. “Potential gains in efficiency and reduced costs through using two-way messaging are large.”

With funding from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and in partnership with the Society for Family Health, the model will soon be tested in urban South Africa. The new, field-based research will further test two-way texting in a different geographical and patient context to better inform the model for adaptation and widespread scale-up.

Feldacker added that “while our findings are grounded in studies on male circumcision, our results are largely attributable to the methods rather than to a specific disease or condition.

“With minimal adaptation,” she continued, “two-way texting could streamline other post-operative care contexts or be re-configured for other similarly acute, episodic conditions where continuity of care within a short period is critical for patients, such as short-course TB treatment, post-operative healing, post-natal care or early childhood illnesses — diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria — laying the foundation for generalizing to other diseases and contexts.”

For more on the study, see the paper pre-published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS):

Reducing provider workload while preserving patient safety: a randomized control trial using 2-way texting for post-operative follow-up in Zimbabwe’s voluntary medical male circumcision program

The study was led by Caryl Feldacker, and co-investigators are Vernon Murenje (International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), Harare, Zimbabwe); Mufuta Tshimanga (Zimbabwe Community Health Intervention Project (ZiCHIRE), Harare, Zimbabwe); Scott Barnhart, Isaac Holeman, and Joseph B. Babigumira (Department of Global Health, University of Washington); Sinokuthemba Xaba (Ministry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe); and technology partner Medic Mobile (Nairobi, Kenya).

The Zimbabwe 2wT study was supported by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R21TW010583.

Health and Wellness National Survey of Youth in Namibia

Since 2017, I-TECH worked closely with the Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare, Ministry of Health and Social Services, UNICEF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Namibia Statistics Agency to implement a nationally representative survey on youth experiences as well as HIV incidence and prevalence. Survey results will inform policy and practice to improve the overall well-being of children and young people in Namibia and further focus HIV prevention efforts.

Survey collaborators are in the process of data analysis with a final report expected in early 2020. I-TECH will continue to support these efforts as well as continue to work to strengthen HIV prevention and promote the overall well-being of youth in Namibia.

Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe women (DREAMS) in Namibia

In 2017, I-TECH began the DREAMS program in Khomas and Zambezi regions. The DREAMS program aims to reduce HIV infections among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) through a core package of evidence-based interventions across health, education, and social sectors. At a safe space such as a school or community center, participants meet with a mentor who is trained to deliver a curriculum focused on the prevention of HIV and gender-based violence (GBV). Mentors help AGYW build strong social networks and empower them to make healthy and positive decisions. AGYW can also access on-site services like HIV testing, family planning, PrEP, counseling, and screening for GBV to protect against HIV infection. I-TECH has supported over 150 safe spaces since its launch and enrolled over 20,000 AGYW in the program.

I-TECH also supports programming for caregivers through the Families Matter! Program, which promotes healthy communication between parents and AGYW around HIV and GBV topics. I-TECH works closely with the Ministry of Education, Arts, and Culture; Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare; Ministry of Health and Social Services; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and other implementing partners.